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SOIL HOLDING FOR MANUFACTURING SILAGE

Two main factors, which have the influence on the fermentation of the silage, this contaminating of the soil and applying fertilizers. Improper holding the soil and fertilizing can lead green fodder to lowering the amount of forage and the inferior quality at ensilage. Contaminating of green fodder with the exaggerated amount soil and unused nitrogen of fertilizers can result in the increase in the risk of the fermentation of bacteria Clostridium in the silage what is leading to the considerable nitrogen content ammonium and of butyric acid in the silage, and therefore - to low eating by farmed animals and the insufficient increase in mass.

HOW TO AVOID  IMPURITY SOIL?

A high content of ash in analysis of silage is a good indicator of exaggerated contaminated soil (> 100 g/kg of a dry matter).

In order to avoid and to limit contaminating of the silage with the soil to the minimum it is possible to take the sequence of operations:

- to roll field late in autumn and/or in early spring and to remove stones - to avoid collecting the grass, if is humid

- not to cut at the too low height, if it is threatening with contaminated soil (e.g. < 70 mm)

- in the winter to limit the proliferation of moles applying recommended and humanitarian methods.

FUNDAMENTALS

- the held soil in good condition should have an opened, brittle structure, should be deep surpassed with the root system, not to have discolourations and to have a healthy population of earthworms

- if they are planning to manufacture the silage, a spring belongs to commence preparing the soil and to distribute with grass animals before the beginning of her height in the end winters

- one should smoothe the area of ground, in it to remove all molehills and to limit the proliferation of moles so that during the vegetative season they don't form molehills

- if before mowing a substantial amount of molehills is on a meadow, one should if necessary not mow and not produce big rolls in order not to expose oneself for contaminating of the pile

- the soil contains million of the bacterium which are calling the acetic fermentation and butyric. They cause the decomposition of proteins and sugars in fodder, because of which the silage has a little sustenance and unwillingly is being taken

- contaminating of the soil can moreover cause health problems for animals, if cattle get the contaminated silage.

APPLYING FERTILIZERS

Every year applying fertilizers on fields from which grass will be acquired to the silage is one of fundamental decisions made by farmers. This decision can have a significant effect of the winter feed to the amount and the quality get.

NITROGEN (N)

- two-time mowing the grass to the silage means you will remove from field up to 10 ton of a dry matter. It is answering 200 - 400 N/ha kg; one should supplement this amount

- the required N amount for the replenishment depends on the sequence of factors:

: of, how many N comes from the soil

: of vegetative period from closing field for mowing

: seasons

: of, whether field was grazed in front of the lock

- one should conduct analysis of the soil so that ensure the appropriate dose of fertilizer and always take implemented nutrients into account from slurry

- fundamentally the N dose amounts from 100 up to 150 N/ha kg

- one should check, whether at mowing remains of nitrogen aren't in green fodder of fertilizer so that the silage doesn't contain significant concentration of the butyric acid and ammonium nitrogen what results in low eating by farmed animals

- fundamentally one should not apply more than 2.5 N/ha kg for every day from closing field for mowing - best however to apply less.

PHOSPHORUS (P)

- at mowing green fodder less phosphates than potassium are being removed, however in order to get a good crop it is recommended to keep the content of P in soil of 3

- depending on analysis one should apply by 100 P/ha kg (indicator 0) up to 30 P/ha kg (indicator 3) after the first mowing green fodder and 30 P/ha kg after every next mowing

POTASSIUM (K2O)

- as similarly as in case of nitrogen, considerable quantities of potassium are being removed along with cut grass, it should be supplemented. In this case analysis of the soil will also allow to describe crops requirements

- fundamentally the indicator of potassium contents in the soil should amount 3; for every mowing the appropriate amount potassium should be ca 150 kg/ha

- one should not apply potassium before grazing, but only after closing field

- if the indicator in the soil amounts to potassium contents is lower than 3, it should be corrected in autumn. Above the value 3 require applying of the paucity potassium in the vegetative period.

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