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PAPILIONACEOUS PLANTS AS CROP FOR SILAGE

 

Fodder ensilaged in rolls can rise from many species of plants. It is important in order to remember that different kinds of the silage demand other processes of preparation. Papilionaceous plants are unusually valuable under the angle of the silage, farmers can however come across certain problems choosing them as the base of fodder. Below set of advices which can help the farmer to maximize results of ensilage papilionaceous plants.

Fodders based on papilionaceous plants are a base of feeding cattle in the majority of countries in the world. He is happening this way firebrands thanks to their ability to bind free nitrogen from the soil by current bacteria in root nodules.

In spite of these unusually beneficial properties, the crop of papilionaceous plants in North Europe is undergoing the great fall, firebrands on account of the access to cheap nitrogen fertilizers. But, farmers are searching in current economic conditions savings in using fertilizers, therefore papilionaceous plants again are making a profit on the popularity. Their crop is lightening budget of the household at the same time improving his productivity.

BENEFITS FROM CROPS OF PAPILIONACEOUS PLANTS IN HOUSEHOLDS OF THE MILK AND MEAT PRODUCTION

- independence from artificial fertilizers (table 1)

- increased participation of the white in fodder

- increased consumption of fodder by cattle

- increased productivity of the household

 

TABLE 1 - COMPARING COSTS OF CROPS OF THE CLOVER AND GRASS

 

Cost/ha/year

300 kg of less nitrogen fertilizers

260 PLN

500 kg of more calcium fertilizers

450 PLN

80 kg of more potassium fertilizers (K2O)

120 PLN

Additional herbicides

98 PLN

Extra cost of the seed

74 PLN

Annual potential savings ha/annually

1002 PLN

 

THE MOST BENEFICIAL SPECIES OF PAPILIONACEOUS PLANTS

- red clover (Trofoliorum Pratense)

- lucerne (Medicago Sativa)

- rutwica medical (Galega Orientalis)

- lotus (Lotus Corniculatus)

- white clover (Trifoliorum Repenny)

 

Before making a decision, which kind will be most beneficial it is worthwhile taking local soil conditioning into consideration. A red clover and a lucerne are popular brands of papilionaceous plants worldwide.

WHY IS IT WORTHWHILE APPLYING THE RED CLOVER AND THE LUCERNE?

- they are these are kinds having a high yield (about 13 ton of a DM/ha/year dry matter comparable for crops of the Italian rye grass fertilized 350 kg of N/ha nitrogen) (graph 1)

- increased assimilability of fodder (on average by the 20% bigger than in case of grass)

- limited edition production of the white (16 22% of the dry matter content)

- easy digest

- the lucerne is much more immune to droughts than grass

- correcting of the milk and meat productivity cows

- of improving quality through the increase in the fertility and airing the soil

- reducing the demand for the purchase of fodder concentrates

- longer time of the mow than at grass

- it can be applied alternately with the rye grass.

 

GRAPH 1 - DRY MATTER CONTENT. GRASS AND PAPILIONACEOUS PLANTS

Tons DM/ha

 

POSSIBILITIES OF THE SOWING

- the direct sowing and rolling

- the scattering and rolling

- to harrow field all over the first crop and to scatter seeds

- there is no need of deep ploughing, maximum 1.5 cm

- pH of the soil 6.0

- rate of P phosphorus and K potassium on the level 7.3 kg/ha red clover + 21.6 kg/ha Italian or hybrid rye grass

PASTURAGE

- plan pasturage cautiously in order to avoid coming into existence of bare squares on field

- fodders based on papilionaceous plants it is worthwhile leading gradually, no, when cattle are hungry. The exaggerated and too fast consumption can threaten with flatulence

- don't feed pregnant sheep for 6 weeks before and after childbirths

- use autumn crops to fatten sheep.


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