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ENSILAGE OF PAPILIONACEOUS PLANTS IN ROLLS

 

Papilionaceous plants  are a Group of fodder plants which the much larger per cent of the white than other plants in a popular way used have as the silage - grass or cereal crops. It causes that they are very attractive under the angle of preparing fodders ensilaged in rolls. But in order to exploit their potential fully, the farmer must observe a few simple rules. This manual contains the row of simple advice thanks to which fodder ensilagedinto rolls will still be arising from papilionaceous plants of better quality.

TWO REASONS EXIST, FOR WHICH IN THE PAST PAPILIONACEOUS PLANTS WERE REGARDED PROBLEMATIC IN THE ENSILAGE PROCESS:

- they have the high protein content - this feature is beneficial at feeding, however causes the big grad of the fodder buffering, that with difficulty reagent is changing pH in the roll what is hindering the fermentation

- little content of water-soluble carbohydrates and sugars. Sugars are being processed by bacteria of the lactic acid in the manufacturing process of stable, well preserved silage.

 

Table 1 - Typical Values: Easiness of the Buffering of the Reaction of the pH, the protein content, the Content of Carbohydrates (source: Halling ah Ave. 2001)

 

Crop

Easiness of buffering (g acid DM lactic/g

The protein content (DM g/kg)

Carbohydrates (DM g/kg)

Red clover

0.71

194

92

Lucerne

0.68

181

72

White clover

0.67

225

84

Goat’s rue medical

0.61

203

65

Lotus

0.68

198

74

Grass without N nitrogen fertilizers

0.43

113

124

Grass of 200 N/ha kg

0.52

133

112

 

Therefore, in order to produce of better quality Silage from papilionaceous plants more Acid is Needed in order to lead the pH inside the Roll to 4, at lower ZAWAROŚCI of Sugars.

However when the silage process is conducted according to a few simple rules, produced fodder from leguminous plants can be excellent sources of nutrients while winter feeding the livestock.

METHODS OF THE HARVEST AND ENSILAGED TECHNIQUES

MOWING AND DRYING

- in the year of sowings crop should bloom before swathe. It is heightening the development of warts on roots what the process of binding nitrogen is heightening N. Next crops are committing harvest between budding and early blooming

6 - 8 week's break between crops should be kept

- annually it is possible to conduct a few crops, in addition the quantity of harvest influences the amount and the quality of the silage

- in order to avoid contaminating of the fodder with the earth, the silage should be mowed at height 12 - 15 cm above the earth

- reaped arrange the silage in rows possibly like widest in order to facilitate drying

- green fodder  shouldn’t be damaged through mechanical processing

- the silage should be dried at least through 48 hours, getting the rate of a dry matter into this way between 28 and 35%

- if in the process of mechanical processing the foliation of plants is damaged, a dry matter content is endangered and proteins in the silage.

 

ENSILAGE

At least will be papilionaceous will be ensilaged just as well in rolls as well as silos, it is worthwhile considering the first option on account of the possibility of simpler producing fodder from low acreage. The climb of this type will provide the full application for the paucity of the produced silage from papilionaceous plants which it is possible to apply e.g. in feeding cows in the early period of the lactation, when demand on high protein fodders is bigger.

- the addition to the silage containing the tribe home-fermented of bacterium of the lactic acid should be applied. Such proceedings will cause that the low amount of sugars in the silage will be exploited to the maximum. Examinations showed that with the help of additions the larger protein content was appearing in the produced silage and of nitrogen, in comparing to the silage produced without additions (graph 1 and 2)

- bale with the helped baler grinding down what will increase the density inside the roll and will free sugars, which "will urge" fermentation. Such action will streamline the fermentation, will remove oxygen from the roll as well as will reduce the number of produced rolls, in the process production costs will be lower

- one should wrap rolls up in the foil should be paced  in the place of storing. Optimum rolls should be wrapped up in 6 layers of the foil. Papilionaceous plants have fatter stalks what is causing, that the risk of damage to an insulating layer is much greater.

Graph 1 - Red Clover PROTEIN - N

PROTEIN - N DM g/kg

 

 

GRAPH 2 - TESTS ON SHEEP, RED CLOVER

CONTENT of NITROGEN (g/d)

 

DISTRIBUTING

- papilionaceous plants are exposed to the lower risk of the spoilage because of the access of oxygen, than grass or cereal crops

- implementing SILAGE from papilionaceous plants as the component of expenses, gradually maximizing the participation in fodder for her for:

1. of total number of the headage in the household, in the objective of lowering of the demand for fodder concentrates

2. of cattle having an increased demand to the white, as cows in the early stage of the lactation.

 

Fodder from ensilaged papilionaceous plants in rolls is an excellent protein source for cattle requiring an extra portion.

 

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