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MINIMIZATION LOSSES IN SILAGE PRODUCTION

 

Losses of a DM dry matter between crops and winter distributing is the main problem to which farmers using ensilaged fodders in rolls must face up. A few losses are sure, however by applying a few straight steps it is possible much to minimize the spoilage of fodder. This manual contains unusually effective signs, thanks to which it is easy to reduce losses in a dry matter of fodder.

There are many causes of loss of a dry matter in the silage. During tests conducted in Germany (Zimmer) 504 households, in which losses reached level of 25 - 70% of the value of a dry matter. Similar tests conducted in Great Britain (ADAS) showed losses of class 25 - 40%. Other tests showed losses in:

- of ensilaged fodder in rolls: 0.2 - 8%

- for silage of the corncob: 15 - 30%

- for silage from the red clover: 4 - 14%

LOSSES OF THE DRY MATTER CONTENT ARE A WASTE OF MONEY

Many causes of losses of the dry matter content exist in ensilaged fodder in rolls. This phenomenon has also direct transferring into financial losses farmers. If we accept the loss of the 20% of the dry matter content in the silage, which DM produced from 1000 ton of green fodder about the contents of the 25% will stay, then losses in ensilaged fodder will reach 50 ton.

In a dry matter so minimizing losses directly is connected with the minimization of financial losses.

Losses in the DM dry matter content can happen at every stage of ensilage and of distributing. Pie chart (graph 1) is pointing out to typical causes of losses at every stage of preparing silage. Some of DM losses are not to avoid, but can be minimized. Other can completely be eliminated by applying good practices in ensilage (table 1).

GRAPH 1 - TYPICAL CAUSES OF LOSS OF  DRY MATTER - DM

 

TABLE 1 - THE PROCESS AND REASONS OF LOSSES IN A DRY MATTER

 

Process

Classification

Cause

Respiration of plants

inevitable

Plant enzymes

Fermentation

inevitable

Useful micro-organisms

Floods or exaggerated drying the crop

inevitable

Low DM content, evil methods ensilage

Secondary fermentation

for avoiding

Plant undesirable micro-organisms contaminating of the soil, the quality

Permeation of air to the silo

for avoiding

Pressing, degree of the grinding, speed of wrapping up, putting in the silos

Oxygen spoilage of fodder while distributing

for avoiding

Like above, the important airtightness of the foil or silos, the speed of distributing

 

 

PRACTICAL POARDY HOW TO REDUCE THE LOSS

LOSSES ON FIELD

- it is important in order to mow how the weather is rainless. It is ensuring the low content of water in the crop. Water must be removed before pickling.

- to avoid contaminating of the fodder with the earth (to cut at height 5 - 10 cm), of searching and raking up

- to avoid mechanical damages. Papilionaceous plants should not have damaged leaves

- rows of the drying silage should be wide and flat what drying is heightening

- dry to a beneficial dry matter in possibly the time the shortest most possible. For grass of 24 h, and for papilionaceous 48 h.

LOSSES IN SILOS

- if it is possible crops should be ensilaged about the DM dry matter content larger than the 27% what will allow on you will remove unnecessary liquids

- grind green fodder down depending on guidelines for the given kind. At the rolls production use grinding down baler. Grinding the silage down influences increasing the thickness of fodder in the roll and reducing contents of oxygen

- use additions to ensilage. They are heightening the content of bacteria contributing to the fermentation, are lowering the pH inside the roll, of silo

- fill up exactly the silo, well pressed with silage

- seal the silo as soon as possible after filling up. Rolls should be sealed within of two hours from wrapping up. It is important so that the foil is of better quality

- rolls should be wrapped up in the place of the more late storage what allows to avoid losses caused by mechanical damaging the foil.

LOSSES AT DISTRIBUTING

- select the capacity of the silo to the amount of cows in the household. The silo cannot be opened longer than 5 days

- use sharp selectors what will  reduce the access of oxygen to the silo

- it is worthwhile thinking over replacing the silage in silos with ensilaged fodder in rolls. Particularly in periods when feeding on the silage is less intensive.

 

The losses caused by the access of oxygen to the silage in silos reach the 25% while losses of the same kind in ensilaged fodder in rolls practically aren't appearing.

 

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